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NDT Services

  • Ultrasonic Testing
  • Radiographic Testing (RT)
  • Magnetic Particle Testing (MPI)
  • Liquid Particle Testing
  • Ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM)
  • Visual Inspection
  • Remote visual inspection
  • Positive Material Identification (PMI)
  • Infrared Thermography
  • Ferrite Measurement
  • Corrosion mapping/C-Scan
  • Ultrasonic Testing

    Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. The Ultrasound energy is generated using Piezo Electric Principle and introduced in the part being inspected, which can propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface which was received and analysed to know the nature and dimensions of the discontinuity. 

    Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method. Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include: 

    • It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities
    • The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods
    • Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used
    • It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape
    • Minimal part preparation is required
    • Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results
    • Detailed images can be produced with automated systems
    • It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw detection
    • Some capability of estimating the size, orientation, shape and nature of defects
    • Nonhazardous to operations or to nearby personnel and has no effect on equipment and materials in the vicinity
    • Capable of portable or highly automated operation

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  • Radiographic Testing (RT)

    Radiographic Testing (RT)), or industrial radiography, is a nondestructive testing (NDT) method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the highly penetrating electromagnetic waves such as X rays or Gamma rays. These radiations are of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) which can penetrate in to various materials. 

    Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source (Ir-192, Co-60, or in rare cases Cs-137) can be used as a source of photons. Since the amount of radiation emerging from the opposite side of the material can be detected and measured, variations in this amount (or intensity) of radiation are used to determine thickness or composition of material. Conventional Radiography uses the Film as the source of recording media and advanced /Digital radiography uses advanced digital recording technology. 

    • Technique is not limited by material type or density
    • Can inspect assembled components
    • Minimum surface preparation required
    • Sensitive to changes in thickness, corrosion, voids, cracks, and material density changes
    • Detects both surface and subsurface defects
    • Provides a permanent record of the inspection

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  • Magnetic Particle Testing (MPI)

    Ultrasonic Testing (UT)is a non-destructive testing method used for defect detection. Magnetic flux leakage is the Basic Principle used in this technique. MPI is fast and relatively easy to apply. Surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. 

    MPI uses magnetic fields (Electromagnetic filed mostly) and small magnetic particles (i.e. iron filings) to detect flaws in components. The only requirement from an inspectability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such as iron, nickel, cobalt, or some of their alloys. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level with an external magnetising force that will allow the inspection to be effective. 

    MPI uses magnetic fields (Electromagnetic filed mostly) and small magnetic particles (i.e. iron filings) to detect flaws in components. The only requirement from an inspectability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such as iron, nickel, cobalt, or some of their alloys. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level with an external magnetising force that will allow the inspection to be effective. 

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  • Liquid Particle Testing

    Liquid Particle Testing or Dye Penetrant testing is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action. After a period of time called the "dwell," excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. This acts as a blotter. It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal its presence. Colored penetrants require good white light while fluorescent penetrants need to be used in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light". 

    The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector. LPI produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye. Highly sensitive to Surface cracks and technique is applicable for all materials except Porous. 

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  • Ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM)

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM) is a non-destructive measurement (gauging) of the local thickness of a solid element (typically made of metal, if using ultrasound testing for industrial purposes) basing on the time taken by the ultrasound wave to return to the surface. This type of measurement is typically performed with an ultrasonic thickness gauge. 

    UTM is frequently used to monitor metal thickness or weld quality in industrial settings. with portable UTM probes measurement can be made steel plating in sides, tanks, decks and the superstructure. They can read its thickness by simply touching the steel with the transducer. 

    Advantages :

    • Non-destructive technique
    • Does not require access to both sides of the sample
    • Can be engineered to cope with coatings, linings, etc
    • Good accuracy (0.1 mm and less) can be achieved using standard timing techniques
    • Can be easily deployed, does not require laboratory conditions
    • Relatively cheap equipment

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  • Visual Inspection

    Visual Inspection is a Basic NDT method to be used for each and every component before it is used for fabrication or installation or usage. It is the most common method of quality control, data acquisition, and data analysis. Visual Inspection, used in maintenance of facilities, mean inspection of equipment and structures using either or all of human senses such as vision with normal aids. Visual Inspection typically means inspection using raw human senses vision and/or any non-specialized inspection equipment.It constitutes an important aspect of practicable quality control for weldments with joints that require testing. 

    It has been proven in numerous situations that an effective programme of visual inspection will result in the discovery of the vast majority of those defects which would be found later using some other more expensive non-destructive test methods. 

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  • Remote visual inspection

    Remote visual inspection tools allow people to visually inspect areas they have no easy access to. It may be Casting or a tank or a pipe where no access to visualize the condition of the component. Videoscope imaging technology has advanced the use of video scopes. Rather than using a fiber optic bundle to convey images, the video scope uses a CCD (charge coupled device, similar to digital camera chips) to send the video signal to the controller and then to the viewer/monitor. Pix-elated image, 180,000-420,000 pixels in a video scope image. The more pixels, the smaller the gaps between the pixels and hence the higher resolution. Good clear image will be obtained for analysis. 

    Applications: 

    • Turbine, aviation and power, looking for FOD, corrosion, cracks, dents, and dings
    • Castings/Foundries, internal passages looking for views, burn in, obstruction
    • Heat exchangers (tubes), scale build up, pitting, heat stress, FAC (flow accelerated corrosion), holes (fish mouth)
    • Tanks, cleaning validation, steady bearings, glass lined (integrity), mixers
    • Vessels, see Tanks, Gear boxes, gear/teeth wear, ‘chatter’
    • Headers, where boiler/chiller tubes come together, general condition, ligament cracking
    • Recip. Engines, cylinder condition (cross hatch), valves
    • Purity Welds, weld integrity and color

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  • Positive Material Identification (PMI)

    Positive Material Identification (PMI) is the analysis of a metallic alloy to establish composition by reading the quantities or composition by percentage of its constituent elements. Typical methods for PMI include X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectrometry. PMI has the ability to eliminate human error. The Technique is simple and accurate. It has been proven that Mill certifications and heat markings in isolation can be unreliable. Human error in the stainless steel and nickel alloy fabrication industries is a constant occurrence. Positive Material Identification (PMI) is used to validate raw materials before fabrication of the final product begins and then once more validate the finished product prior to installation. PMI is used to differentiate group of metal from scraps. Used to test the filler material composition even after welding.

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  • Infrared Thermography

    Infrared Thermography is method of measuring the difference in temperature at different locations. Thermal NDT methods involve the measurement or mapping of surface temperatures as heat flows to, from and/or through an object. The simplest thermal measurements involve making point measurements with a thermocouple. This type of measurement might be useful in locating hot spots, such as a bearing that is wearing out and starting to heat up due to an increase in friction. 

    This is a non-contact method used the collect the thermal information over a wide area to find the abnormalities. Thermal imaging systems are instruments that create pictures of heat flow rather than of light. Thermal imaging is a fast, cost effective way to perform detailed thermal analysis. The basic premise of thermographic NDT is that the flow of heat from the surface of a solid is affected by internal flaws such as disbonds, voids or inclusions. 

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  • Ferrite Measurement

    Ferrite Measurement is a non-destructive test method which assures the quality of the product without the need of expensive laboratory based destructive test methods .This is the major technique which is used to find the Proportion of ferrite content in the material. This is simple and very good for onsite measurement. Austenitic, Duplex, Super-duplex stainless steels require adequate proportion of ferrite in the product to obtain acceptable corrosion resistance and strength and especially resistance to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The laboratory based destructive method such as microstructural analysis on the test specimen or sample is very tedious and time taking.

    In order to guarantee the acceptable ferrite content in the final product, ferrite measurements are performed on the actual product using ferritoscope.

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  • Corrosion mapping/C-Scan

    A Major advanced technique similar to UTG but for a wide area thickness measurement instead of localised spot. Ultrasonic corrosion mapping is a key method in most non-invasive inspection strategies. In ultrasonic wall thickness mapping systems, a probe is linked to a equipment / computer so that thickness data for each predetermined measurement position can be recorded. Each thickness level can be colour coded and wall thinning by corrosion or erosion is more readily recognised than by manual inspection. High reproducibility (typically with 0.3 mm wall loss) enables accurate monitoring and calculation of corrosion rates. Automatic scanning or semi-automatic scan is possible. 

    Wall thickness mapping can be applied in-service at temperatures up to 250°C using special high temperature probes and couplant. Wall thinning, pitting, corrosion, hydrogen induced corrosion and hot hydrogen attack can all be detected and imaged. 
    Guaranteed 100% coverage of the inspection area.
    Visualisation of wall thickness patterns using B, C and D scan presentations
    Recent developments

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  • Phased Array Ultrasonic testing (PAUT)
  • Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)
  • Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL)
  • Eddy Current weld Inspection
  • Internal Rotating Inspection System (IRIS)
  • Tank Floor Scanner
  • Tube Inspection
  • Heat Treatment
  • Hardness testing
  • Phased Array Ultrasonic testing (PAUT)

    Phased Array Ultrasonic testing (PAUT) enables the generation and receiving of an ultrasonic beam where parameters such as angle, focal distance, and focal point size are controlled through software. The ultrasonic beam can be multiplexed over a large array. The wide range of capabilities Provides greater feasibility to the user in using PAUT. For instance, it is possible to quickly vary the angle of the beam to scan a part without moving the probe itself. Phased array also allows replacing multiple probes and mechanical components. Inspecting a part with a variable-angle beam also maximizes detection regardless of the defect orientation, while optimizing signal-to-noise ratio. Semi-Automated inspection and Data recording provides additional support to replace PAUT in place of RT. 

    Major Applications : 

    • Butt Weld Testing
    • Composites
    • Nozzle Testing
    • Small Diameter Austenitic Pipe Weld Testing
    • In Service Testing of Pipe—Stress Corrosion Cracking
    • T-weld Testing of Bridge Structures
    • Hydrogen Induced Cracking

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  • Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)

    Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)works with the Principle of diffraction in contrast to Reflection of ultrasound as used in conventional UT. The deflection of a wave front as it passes an ultrasonically opaque object and expands into the region that is behind the object and hence not directly exposed to the incoming waves. When ultrasound is incident at linear discontinuity such as a crack, diffraction takes place at its extremities. The study of this phenomenon has led to the use of time of flight diffraction method of crack sizing. TOFD is very sensitive to detecting all kinds of defects, irrespective of its orientation. Using this advanced technique gas, binding defects, porosity, slag inclusions and cracks can be detected independent of defect orientation with very accurate sizing of the defects. 

    Advantages & applications of TOFD : 

    • TOFD defect detection does not depend on the defect orientation, in contrast to the pulse echo technique
    • Defect height, length can be exactly determined
    • TOFD saves costs, if applied during construction, possible to distinguish pre-service and in-service defects. That means the unit can stay longer in production, and is safe

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  • Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL)

    Two strong permanent magnets coupled to a steel core, generate a magnetic field that saturates the tube wall. An absolute coil (ABC) is wound around the core to measure magnetic field variation caused by general wall loss A flaw between two magnets caused the magnetic field in tube wall disturbed results in a small amount of flux leakage in to the inner tube. The flux leakage is detected by a differential coil located between the magnets and a trail coil at the end of probe detects the residual magnetism from the internal pits. 

    Applications of MFL: 

    • Carbon steel-Heat exchangers, feed water heater, effective for Aluminium finned carbon steel tubes
    • Very fast, suitable for wall loss, pitting, grooves and circumferential cracks

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  • Eddy Current weld Inspection

    Eddy Current weld Inspectionis a method for the inspection of metallic parts Particularly Conductive material. The probe (coil), excited with an alternating current, induces an eddy current in the part being inspected. Any discontinuities or material property variations that change the eddy current flow in the part are detected by the probe. The Probability of detection will be more when the Eddy current is Perpendicular to the discontinuity 

    The eddy current technique is now recognized to be fast, simple, and accurate. The technique is widely used in the aerospace, automotive, petrochemical, and power generation industries in the detection of surface or near surface defects in materials such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper, titanium, brass, Inconel, and even carbon steel (surface defect only). Very sensitive to cracks. Under coat or painted surface inspection are possible with Eddy current inspection 

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  • Internal Rotating Inspection System (IRIS)

    Works with same Basic ultrasonic principle. The impedance mismatch reflects the ultrasound. Analysis of signal data with different display produces the information about the discontinuities. IRIS technology is used extensively as approve up technique for RFT, ECT, MFL. 

    Applications of IRIS: 

    • Non ferritic tube-condenser, heat exchanger, feed water heater
    • Mild ferritic steel, monel, stainless steels
    • Aluminium finned air cooler
    • Circumferential crack detection
    • Full tube length recording
    • Reduces missed flaws with C-scan display, colour maps and cross section views of defects

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  • Tank Floor Scanner

    Tank Floor Scanner is widely used NDT technique for the inspection of tank walls. Magnetic flux leakage principle is applied here for the inspection of tank bottom plates. Unlike the basic conventional NDT- MPI, the tank floor equipment uses sensors to detect the leakage field due to corrosion, pitting, wall loss and will be recorded in the system connected to Sensors. 

    For in-service inspection of tank plates, pipeline corrosion monitoring MFL is widley used. It is faster than other corrosion mapping techniques and also give better results. Dimensions of the defects can be well determined with this technology as the system uses encoders, software’s to track and record data 

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  • Tube Inspection

    In-service inspection for Heat exchangers, boiler tube, air coolers, feeder water heater requires a high level multi technology equipment. Specific technique is necessary for different materials. 

    • Tube Inspection with Eddy Current Testing (ECT)
    • Tube Inspection with Internal Rotating Inspection System (IRIS) for Ferrous and Nonferrous Materials
    • Tube Inspection with Remote Field Testing (RFT)
    • Tube Inspection with Near Field Testing (NFT)
    • Tube Inspection with Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL)

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  • Heat Treatment

    Heat Treatment is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, stress relieving, and other properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. 

    Pre weld heat treatment and post weld heat treatment for stress relieving most commonly used during fabrication. 

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  • Hardness testing

    Hardness is the measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting. Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness. 

    Hardness is dependent on ductility, elastic stiffness, plasticity, strain, strength, toughness, viscoelasticity, and viscosity 

    The usual method to achieve a hardness value is to measure the depth or area of an indentation left by an indenter of a specific shape, with a specific force applied for a specific time. There are three principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. 

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